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Application layer It tops the OSI model. It will handle requests related to file transfer and database queries low. Two very important protocols, HTTP and FTP (File Transfer Protocol), operate at this layer.
presentation piece I am a translator of the OSI model. Provides instructions on how to do this through the header The data must be formatted on the receiving device.
MIME-multipurpose internet mail extensions protocol operates at this layer to define file formats and data types Session layer It provides instructions about the nature of the communication link between the sending and receiving machine during a session.
A combination of protocols called Session Protocol Data Units works at this layer. Three modes of communication are simplex, half-duplex and full-duplex. Simplex means communication in one direction only.
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Half-duplex means communication in two directions but one party can send data at a time. Full duplex means two-way communication where both parties can send data at the same time. It also puts special checkpoints on data packets to track lost packets.
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Transport layer TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) or UDP (User Datagram Protocol) operates on this layer. two in Work. It converts data into data packets. Second, it serves to control the flow of data. 6 Unlike UDP, which does not use the system, it is based on verification and is more reliable.
Thanks for providing the data packet. network layer It is responsible for assigning IP addresses to data packets using the IP protocol. routing information (RIP) protocol also works here, allowing routers to create their own routing tables.
Another protocol The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is also designed to work at the network layer. data transmission level Place the data packet in the data frame.
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Network interface card drivers/protocols operate at this level. is Used to identify a computer’s MAC or hardware address. The mathematical calculation, circulation A redundancy check (CRC) is carried out here to check the integrity of the data frame. physical layer There is no head.
This will convert all information including header information into binary data low. As a result, the 1s and 0s line up to generate an electrical signal with the movement. Connection media on the receiving side.
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Internet Layer – TCP/IP Stack The Internet Communications Model (TCP/IP stack) proposes a four-tier architecture. The name of the following is Internet Layer corresponding to the OSI Model Layer:
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