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Previous examples include railways:
Signaling systems, telephone exchanges, pipe organs, and energy distribution systems. Computers use modularity to overcome changing customer needs and create them The production process is more adaptable to changes.
ENG522 HIGHLIGHTED HANDOUTS
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Modular design is an attempt to combine:
Advantages of standardization (high volume usually equates to low production costs) With customizations, the downside is modularity (and it depends on how much).
Modularity is that modular systems are not optimized for performance. This is usually why The cost of placing the interface between modules I. encapsulation A problem perspective extracts basic information related to a particular topic.
Encapsulation can group related ideas into a single unit and then display it like this: one name. This is done by isolating the system’s functions or data and process groups in the system. That data is inside the module, giving the exact specification for the module.
ENG522 HIGHLIGHTED HANDOUTS-APPLIED LINGUISTICS
Subscriber Abstraction elements are grouped together and separated from other components. for example
An abstract data type. A simple digital alarm clock is a real object that ordinary people can use and understand.
They can provide an interface (button and screen), without the need to understand every part of the inside of the watch. Likewise, you Replacing your watch with a non-digital model allows non-digital people to use your watch in the same way.
ENG522 HIGHLIGHTED HANDOUTS PDF-APPLIED LINGUISTICS
If the user interface behaves the same. Relational databases are encapsulated in the sense that the only public interface is a query. A language that hides all internal machines and data structures (e.g. SQL) database management system.